MMVR 2006 Session C:

Patient Safety and Medical Simulation:
Issues, Challenges and Opportunities

Alan Liu, Mark Scerbo, Heidi King, Mark Bowyer


Dr. Liu is project scientist at the Surgical Simulation Laboratory, National Capital Area Medical Simulation Center (SimCen). He is involved in defining research directions and technical infrastructure for the SimCen. Dr. Liu plays an active role in developing virtual reality based surgical simulators to support the education and training objectives of the SimCen. He is the principal developer of the center's pericardiocentesis and diagnostic peritoneal lavage simulators. They are the world’s first computer-based trainers for these procedures. These simulators were used in the nation’s first Advanced Trauma Life Support (ATLS) course conducted without animals or cadavers. Dr. Liu is also the principal architect for the center's cricothyroidotomy simulator. Dr. Liu has conducted numerous tutorials and workshops on medical simulation, including tutorials and workshops at MICCAI 2001 and 2003, HICSS 2003, and MMVR 2002-2006. He was an invited speaker at the 2002 United States Medicine Institute for Health Studies forum on Computers, Robots, and Cyberspace in Washington D.C. Dr. Liu’s current research focus includes the development of a 1000 sq. ft. total immersion virtual environment for mass casualty training, with applications in military medical readiness, and homeland defense.


Mark W. Scerbo is a Professor of Human Factors Psychology at Old Dominion University and a Fellow of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society. He received his Ph.D. from the University of Cincinnati in 1987. He has a Professional Certification in Modeling and Simulation and is currently Co-Director of the National Center for Collaboration in Medical Modeling and Simulation. He has over 25 years of experience researching and designing simulation technology, automated systems, and adaptive interfaces.

Ms. King is the Deputy Director for the Department of Defense Patient Safety Program. She is also the Program Manager for the Healthcare Team Coordination Program in the Patient Safety Division in the Office of the Chief Medical Officer (OCMO) within TRICARE Management Activity (TMA).

As the Program Manager, Ms. King oversees the development and implementation of team intervention and human factors initiatives into practice within the Military Health System. Invited to numerous conferences, she shares relevant information regarding training and process consultation on culture change management, behavioral implementation, and sustainment of teamwork efforts.

Ms. King is a member of the DoD Patient Safety Planning and Coordination Committee. She is collaborating with AHRQ on behalf of the DoD Patient Safety Program on strategic initiatives including developing teamwork measures, medical team training strategies, and publications.

In 2005, Ms. King was awarded The Office of the Secretary of Defense Medal for Exceptional Civilian Service for her innovative accomplishments at TMA. She recently co-authored an article entitled, “The Role of Teamwork in the Professional Education of Physicians: Current Status and Assessment Recommendations", published in Joint Commission Journal on Quality and Patient Safety, (vol. 31, no. 4, pp. 185-202).

During her initial position as the Project Manager for the Education Division of the TMA Office of the Special Assistant for Optimization, Ms. King collaborated to develop education components related to optimization efforts and population health improvement. Prior to joining TMA, Ms. King held a variety of management positions at the Children’s National Medical Center in Washington, DC, including Internal Consultant advising on business process redesign and Program Manager for Clinical Support Services overseeing seventeen departments.

Ms. King has a Masters in Health Administration from the University of Pittsburgh and a B.S. in Education and Health from Edinboro University, after becoming a Registered Dental Hygienist. She is Board Certified in Healthcare Management and a Diplomate of the American College of Healthcare Executives. Ms. King previously held faculty appointments in the metropolitan Washington, DC area. She also served for two years as a dental health educator with the Peace Corps.


Dr. Bowyer is the Surgical Director of the National Capital Area Medical Simulation Center. He is also an Associate Professor of Surgery, and the Chief, Division of Trauma and Combat Surgery at the Uniformed Services University. He is board certified in both General Surgery and Surgical Critical Care and actively practices trauma surgery at the Washington Hospital Center. Dr. Bowyer is the current Chair (Air Force), American College of Surgeons Military Region Committee on Trauma. He has been on the forefront of adopting the use of surgical simulators as a replacement for animals in the teaching of the Advanced Trauma Life Support course. Dr. Bowyer has been involved in the teaching of medical students and residents since 1990. He is integrally involved in developing simulation based curriculum for medical students starting their surgical rotation. Dr. Bowyer has an ongoing interest and involvement in developing and validating robust trauma, laparoscopic, triage, and critical care based simulators.




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Last updated on: Sun, January 28, 2007 12:54 PM

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